Birdwatching and birding by ear.

An accessible and inclusive tourism proposal for the city of Lagos.




:  Accessible tourism goes beyond the physical dimension, associating services with sensory experiences, considering the specificities of people with disabilities. Birdwatching and birding by ear can be a good example of an activity that links visiting new places with outdoor activities. It can bring positive outcomes to the visitors through the benefits of being outside and connecting with nature, consequently, with ecosystem services; moreover, it can be an inclusive and accessible activity. Urban areas are increasing all over the world. In a sustainable context, green and blue infrastructures have received increasing attention in urban strategies. They create new habitats, contributing to urban biodiversity and, at the same time, providing many ecosystem services that guaranty well-being for the communities. The main goal of this study was to inventory and characterize the bird community in the urban area of Lagos, a touristic city in the South of Portugal. Birdwatching and birding by ear in the city could have the potential for an inclusive and accessible touristic activity. Three different sites along the city were sampled and a total of 35 species were sighted and identified. Some of these species could be identified through specific websites which describe the bird and give the respective bird singing sound. Most species identified were migratory, which increases the potential to sight different species through the year. The three sites' location has high potential to be integrated into accessible walking routes or tours, which increases the relevance of this study.


Acorn Consultants. (2008) Developing a Niche Tourism Market Database for the Caribbean. Acorn Consulting Partnership Ltd. Retrieved from

Agapito, D., Valle, P., Mendes, J. (2014). The sensory dimension of tourist experiences: Capturing meaningful sensory-informed themes in Southwest Portugal. Tourism Management 42, 224-237. Retrieved from

Aragall, F., EuCAN members. (2003). European concept for accessibility: technical assistance manual. Luxemburgo, EuCAN - European Concept for Accessibility Network. Retrieved from

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). (2013). APEC voices of the future, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia. Retrieved September 1, 2020, from

Aves de Portugal. Retrieved October 6, 2020, from

Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Falk J. (2011). Visitors' learning for environmental sustainability: Testing short- and long-term impacts of wildlife tourism experiences using structural equation modelling. Tourism Manage. 32, 6, 1243-1252. Retrieved from

Bălescu, C., Gache, C. (2017). Birds’ Diversity and the anthropogenic impact in Preajba-Făcăi wetlands (Dolj, Romania). Analele Stiințifice ale Universității “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” din iași (Serie Nouă). Retrieved from

Barbier, E. B., Koch, E. W., Silliman, B. R., Hacker, S. D., Wolanski, E., Primavera, J., Granek, E. F., et al. (2008). Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values. Science, 319(5861). Retrieved from

Barbier, E. B., Hacker, S. D., Kennedy, C., Koch, E. W., Stier, A. C., & Silliman, B. R. (2011). The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecological Monographs. Retrieved from

Berleant, A. (2011). The aesthetics of art and nature. Landscape, Natural Beauty and the Arts. Retrieved from

Bibby, C., Jones, M., & Marsden, S. (1998). Expedition Field Techniques BIRD SURVEYS. In Director (Vol. 44).

Bowler, D. E., Buyung-Ali, L. M., Knight, T. M., & Pullin, A. S. (2010). A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments. BMC Public Health, 10. Retrieved from

Boyd, J., & Banzhaf, S. (2007). What are ecosystem services? The need for standardized environmental accounting units. Ecological Economics, 63(2–3). Retrieved from

Buhalis, D. (2005). Disability tourism-OSSATE links. Retrieved from

Cabral, MJ. (coord.), Almeida, J., Almeida, P. R., Dellinger, T., Ferrand de Almeida, N., Oliveira, M. E., Palmeirim, J. M., Queiroz, A. I., Rogado, L., Santos-Reis, M. (eds.) (2005). Livro Vermelho dos Vertebrados de Portugal - Aves. Instituto da Conservação da Natureza. Lisboa. Retrieved from

Carbó-Ramírez, P., & Zuria, I. (2011). The value of small urban greenspaces for birds in a Mexican city. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100(3). Retrieved from

Carrus, G., Scopelliti, M., Lafortezza, R., Colangelo, G., Ferrini, F., Salbitano, F., Agrimi, M., et al. (2015). Go greener, feel better? The positive effects of biodiversity on the well-being of individuals visiting urban and peri-urban green areas. Landscape and Urban Planning, 134. Retrieved from

Center for Universal Design. (1997): The principles of universal design, Version 2.0. Raleigh: North Carolina State University - The Center for Universal Design. USA. By Connell, B. R.; Jones, M.; Mace, R.; Mueller, J.; Mullick, A.; Ostroff, E.; Sanford, J.; Steinfeld, E.; Story, M. & Vanderheiden, G. Available in: udprinciplestext.htm. Accessed on: March 28, 2018.

Chikuta, O., du Plessis, E., & Saayman, M. (2019). Accessibility Expectations of Tourists with Disabilities in National Parks. Tourism Planning and Development, 16(1). Retrieved from

Colby. (2018). Calculating Biodiversity. Retrieved September 26, 2020, from

Cordell, H. K., & Herbert, N. G. (2002). The popularity of birding is still growing. Birding; 34: 54-59 Available at

Costa, A. S. (2015). Birdwatcher profile in the Ria Formosa Natural Park. Faro: University of Algarve, Faculty of Economics.

Dadvand, P., Villanueva, C. M., Font-Ribera, L., Martinez, D., Basagaña, X., Belmonte, J., Vrijheid, M., et al. (2015). Risks and benefits of green spaces for children: A cross-sectional study of associations with sedentary behavior, obesity, asthma, and allergy. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(12). Retrieved from

Dallimer, M., Irvine, K. N., Skinner, A. M. J., Davies, Z. G., Rouquette, J. R., Maltby, L. L., Warren, P. H., et al. (2012). Biodiversity and the feel-good factor: Understanding associations between self-reported human well-being and species richness. BioScience, 62(1). Retrieved from

Darcy, S. (2006). Setting a research agenda for accessible tourism. Gold Coast, Australia: Sustainable Tourism for Cooperative Research Centre. Retrieved May 25, 2007, from BookDetail.aspx?d=473.

Darcy, S., & Dickson, T. J. (2009). A whole-of-life approach to tourism: The case for accessible tourism experiences. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 16(1). Retrieved from

Darcy, S., Cameron, B., & Pegg, S. (2010). Accessible tourism and sustainability: A discussion and case study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(4). Retrieved from

Edensor, T. (2012). Walking in the British Countryside: Reflexivity, Embodied Practices and Ways to Escape. Bodies of Nature Bodies of nature. Retrieved from

Elmqvist, T., Goodness, J., Marcotullio, P. J., Parnell, S., Sendstad, M., Wilkinson, C., Fragkias, M., et al. (2013). Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: Challenges and opportunities: A global assessment. Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment. Available in

ERTA – Entidade Regional de Turismo do Algarve (2009), Birdwatching no Algarve - Propostas de Estruturação e Organização, Faro. Entidade Regional de Turismo do Algarve. Available in

Farias, G. B. (2007). A observação de aves como possibilidade ecoturística. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia; 15(3): 474-477. Available in

Fuller, R. A., Irvine, K. N., Devine-Wright, P., Warren, P. H., & Gaston, K. J. (2007). Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biology Letters, 3(4). Retrieved from

Garrison, B., Patterson, C. Barnes, B. (2005). Development and marketing strategies for birding and wildlife tourism in the Greater Reno Nevada Region. Nature Tourism Planning. Available in

Gedan, K. B., Kirwan, M. L., Wolanski, E., Barbier, E. B., & Silliman, B. R. (2011). The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: Answering recent challenges to the paradigm. Climatic Change. Retrieved from

Gibson, C., & Connell, J. (2007). Music, tourism and the transformation of memphis. Tourism Geographies, 9(2). Retrieved from

Gill, S. E., Handley, J. F., Ennos, A. R., & Pauleit, S. (2007). Adapting cities for climate change: The role of the green infrastructure. Built Environment, 33(1). Retrieved from

Goldstein, E. B. (2010). Sensation and perception (8th ed.). USA: Wadsworth. ISBN-13: 978-1305580299

de Groot, R. S., Alkemade, R., Braat, L., Hein, L., & Willemen, L. (2010). Challenges in integrating the concept of ecosystem services and values in landscape planning, management and decision making. Ecological Complexity, 7(3). Retrieved from

Handley, J., Pauleit, S., Slinn, P., Lindley, S., Baker, M., Barber, A., Jones, C. (2003). Providing Accessible Natural Greenspace in Towns and Cities – A Practical Guide to Assessing the Resource and Implementing Local Standards for Provision. Project Undertaken on behalf of English Nature. Centre for Urban and Regional Ecology. Retrieved from

Hawkins, D. E., & Lamoureux, K. (2009). Global growth and magnitude of ecotourism. The encyclopedia of ecotourism. Retrieved from

Hodson, M., & Marvin, S. (2010). Urbanism in the anthropocene: Ecological urbanism or premium ecological enclaves? City, 14(3). Retrieved from

van Hoven, B. (2005). Multi-sensory tourism in the Great Bear Rainforest. Power. Retrieved from

ICNF – Instituto de Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas, Lista vermelha dos Vertebrados de Portugal, n.d. Retrieved September 6, from

INE. (2018). Statistical Yearbook of Algarve Region 2018 (PDF). Lisboa: Instituto Nacional de Estatística. ISSN 0873-0008. ISBN 978-989-25-0503-9

Instituto Geográfico Português (2013). Áreas das freguesias, municípios e distritos/ilhas da CAOP 2013. Carta Administrativa Oficial de Portugal (CAOP), Direção-Geral do Território. Retrieved from

Jaquette, S. (2005). “Maimed Away From The Earth”: Disability and wilderness. Spring. Available in

Kaplan, S. (2001). Meditation, restoration, and the management of mental fatigue. Environment and Behavior, 33(4). Retrieved from

Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (2011). Well-being, reasonableness, and the natural environment. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3(3). Retrieved from

Kim, J., & Kaplan, R. (2004). Physical and psychological factors in sense of community: New urbanist Kentlands and nearby orchard village. Environment and Behavior, 36(3). Retrieved from

Kling, K. G. & Ioannides D. (2019). Enhancing accessibility in tourism and outdoor recreation: A review of major research themes and a glance at best practice. ETOUR Rapport, Mid Sweden University

Kuo, M. (2015). How might contact with nature promote human health? Promising mechanisms and a possible central pathway. Frontiers in Psychology, 6. Retrieved from

Machado, A. (2011). Bird-watching Tourism in Europe: case study of the Algarve. Faro: University of Algarve and School of Tourism, Bournemouth University.

Maidstone Borough Council. (2016). Green and blue infrastructure strategy. Retrieved September 10, 2020, from assets/pdf_file/0004/164659/Green-and-Blue-Infrastructure-Strategy-June-2016.pdf

Martos-Martins, R., & Donatelli, R. J. (2020). Community of diurnal birds of prey in an urban area in southeastern brazil. Neotropical Biology and Conservation, 15(3). Retrieved from

Mcavoy, L., Holman, T., Goldenberg, M., & Klenosky, D. (2006). Wilderness and persons with disabilities: Transferring the benefits to everyday life. International Journal of Wilderness, 12(2). Available in

McCormick, B. P. (2004). People with disabilities - National survey of recreation and the environment. Retrieved October 6, 2020, from

Mexia T., Vieira J., Príncipe A., Anjos A., Silva P., Lopes N., Freitas C., Santos-Reis M., Correia O., Branquinho C., Pinho P. (2018). Ecosystem services: Urban parks under a magnifying glass. Environmental Research, 160, 469–478. Retrieved from

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC. Available in

Nichols, J. D., Thomas, L., & Conn, P. B. (2009). Inferences About Landbird Abundance from Count Data: Recent Advances and Future Directions. Modeling Demographic Processes In Marked Populations. Retrieved from

Novelli, M. (2004). Niche tourism: Contemporary issues, trends and cases. Niche Tourism: Contemporary issues, trends and cases. ISBN-13: 978-0750661331

Nowak, D. J., Crane, D. E., & Stevens, J. C. (2006). Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 4(3–4). Retrieved from 10.1016/j.ufug.2006.01.007

Owen, N., Healy, G. N., Matthews, C. E., & Dunstan, D. W. (2010). Too much sitting: The population health science of sedentary behavior. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 38(3). Retrieved from

Parihar, A., Dal, P., Khandla, Y., Parmar, D., Parihar, V., Parmar, H., (2020) Checklist of Avifauna from selected sites of Visnagar city, Mehshana, Nort Gujarat. Journal of Entomology and Zoology studies. 8. 1232-1243. Available in

Rook, G. A. (2013). Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: An ecosystem service essential to health. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Retrieved from

Saayman, M., Slabbert, E., & van der Merwe, P. (2010). Travel motivation: A tale of two marine destinations in South Africa. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 32(1). Retrieved from

Sandifer, P. A., Sutton-Grier, A. E., & Ward, B. P. (2015). Exploring connections among nature, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human health and well-being: Opportunities to enhance health and biodiversity conservation. Ecosystem Services. Retrieved from

Santos M. (2012). Biodiversidade na Cidade de Lisboa: uma estratégia para 2020. Biodiversidade Lisboa 2020, Relatório técnico

Seeland, K., Dübendorfer, S., & Hansmann, R. (2009). Making friends in Zurich’s urban forests and parks: The role of public green space for social inclusion of youths from different cultures. Forest Policy and Economics, 11(1). Retrieved from

Sekercioglu, Ç. H. (2002). Impacts of birdwatching on human and avian communities. Environmental Conservation; 29(3): 282-289. Retrieved from

Service, F., Ralph, C. J., Geupel, G. R., Pyle, P., Martin, T. E., Desante, D. F., Milá, B., et al. (1996). Manual de métodos de campo para el monitoreo de aves terrestres. Director. Available in

Shepard, C. C., Crain, C. M., & Beck, M. W. (2011). The protective role of coastal marshes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. Retrieved from

Slabbert, E., & du Plessis, E. (2013). Do socio-demographic factors influence the travel behaviour of visitors to nature-based tourism products in South Africa? African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance(19). Available in

SPEA – Sociedade Portuguesa para o estudo das aves (2008). Observaram-se 404 espécies de aves em Portugal Continental. Comunicado em imprensa de 7 de Fevereiro de 2008. Retrieved from

SPEA – Sociedade Portuguesa para o estudo das aves (2019). Anuário Ornitológico, volume 11. Retrieved September 31 from

Stringer, L. A., & McAvoy, L. H. (1992). The Need for Something Different: Spirituality and Wilderness Adventure. Journal of Experiential Education, 15(1). Retrieved from

Supriatna, J. (2018). Biodiversity Indexes: Value and Evaluation Purposes. E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 48). Retrieved from

Sutherland, W. J., Newton, I., Green, R., Gregory, R. D., Gibbons, D. W., & Donald, P. F. (2007). Bird census and survey techniques. In Bird Ecology and Conservation.

Svensson, L. (2017). Guia de aves: o guia de campo mais completo das aves de Portugal e da Europa / Lars Svensson; il. e legendas Killian Mullarney, Dan Zetterström; colab. Peter J. Grant; trad. Joana Andrade et al. - 3ª ed. rev. - Porto: Assírio & Alvim, 2017. – 443. ISBN: 978-972-37-1963-5

Todd, C. S. (2019). Chapter 9. Nature, Beauty and Tourism. Philosophical Issues in Tourism. Retrieved from

Tourism Australia. (2005). Annual Report 2005/2006. Sydney: Government of Australia. Available in

Tung, V. W. S., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2011). Exploring the essence of memorable tourism experiences. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4). Retrieved from

Turner, M. G., & Chapin, F. S. (2005). Causes and Consequences of Spatial Heterogeneity in Ecosystem Function. Ecosystem Function in Heterogeneous Landscapes. Retrieved from

de Vries, S., Verheij, R. A., Groenewegen, P. P., & Spreeuwenberg, P. (2003). Natural environments - Healthy environments? An exploratory analysis of the relationship between greenspace and health. Environment and Planning A, 35(10). Retrieved from

White, M. P., Alcock, I., Wheeler, B. W., & Depledge, M. H. (2013). Coastal proximity, health and well-being: Results from a longitudinal panel survey. Health and Place, 23. Retrieved from

Wyles, K. J., Pahl, S., & Thompson, R. C. (2014). Perceived risks and benefits of recreational visits to the marine environment: Integrating impacts on the environment and impacts on the visitor. Ocean and Coastal Management, 88. Retrieved from

Zainol, R. (2014). Appreciating a World Heritage Site using Multisensory Elements: A Case Study in Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia. SHS Web of Conferences, 12. Retrieved from

Zeller, J. A. (2008). Wilderness and accessibility. International Journal of Wilderness, 14(1), 15–24. Retrieved from

Article cover




How to Cite

Rolim, A. M., Costa Pinto, V., & Pires Rosa, M. (2021). Birdwatching and birding by ear. : An accessible and inclusive tourism proposal for the city of Lagos. Journal of Accessibility and Design for All, 11(1), 48–85.